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Definition of technical terms and explanation of product related names

Aramid
A manufactured polyamide fiber that exhibits high strength and high modulus. Commercially known as Kevlar®, Technora®, Twaron® ect.

Bias
The 45° direction to the warp or fill. Also called diagonal.

Calender or calendering
A finishing step where the cloth is subject to heat and pressure to improve bias stability.

Count
Number of yarns in fill or warp direction. Usually expressed in yarns per inch or cm.

Crimp
Woven yarns bend up and down as they pass over and under one another. Crimped yarns are shortened due to this bending and tend to exhibit more stretch.

Denier
The weight in grams of 9.000 meters of a given yarn.

DPI
Denier Per Inch.

Dtex
Decitex. The weight in grams of 10.000 meters of a given yarn.

Elongation
Deformation made by a tensile force. In sailcloth measured in "units".

Ends
Used for expressing the amount of warp yarns in a fabric.

Fill
The 90° direction to the edge of the cloth. Also the name of yarn running from one edge to the other.

Film
Most films used in sailcloth is polyester. Best known brand name are Mylar® and Tedlar®.

Finish
A material or process applied to a fabric to alter its characteristics. In sailcloth a finish can be applied by coating, saturating (impregnating) or laminating.

Flex resistance
The cloth’s ability to resist flex. Normally measured in terms of remaining tensile strength after a 50 to 60 cycle flex.

Flutter Test
A laboratory test designed to simulate a sail luffing when not being trimmed. This test determines the fabrics ability to resist degradation.

Foot
1 Foot = 12 inches = 30,48 cm.

FT
Fine Tempered. A DIMENSION - POLYANT impregnated finish. Softer than MT.

HMT
Hard Medium Tempered. A DIMENSION - POLYANT impregnated finish. Firmer than MT.

HTP® plus
High Tempered Polyester. A very firm DIMENSION - POLYANT coated finish.

Inter-Ply
A DIMENSION - POLYANT patented (U.S. Patent # 4.679.519) sailcloth styles created by inserting uncrimped warp yarns between two compounds.

Impact flutter
Where the test strip hits a board when flutter tested.

Inch
1" (Inch) = 2.54 cm.

Lab Test
A stretch test done by elongating the fabric at various loads before fluttering.

Lot
One unit of production of one style.

Knit
A type of fabric construction where fill and warp yarns are not woven together but are tied together with a small polyester knit yarn. Knits tend to have less crimp.

MT
Medium Tempered. A DIMENSION - POLYANT impregnated finish.

Mil
1 mil=1/1000 inch.

Peel strength
A measure of the force required to separate or peel apart two layers in a laminate.
Usually expressed as a force per width (being peeled).

Pick
A yarn running in the fill direction.

PSA
Pressure Sensitive Adhesive.

Scrim
Very light open-weave construction. Only usable with film or other fabrics.

Sm-oz
Sailmakers square yards. The weight in ounces for a piece of fabric 28.5" by 36".
1Sm-oz=42.83 g/m2.

Specs
The units of stretch the fabric stretches when loaded in the warp, fill and bias before and after flutter.

Strength

The ability to resist breaking or permanent deformation during elongation.

Substrate
Any non-film layer in a laminate.

Square
Patented line of polyester sailcloth by DIMENSION - POLYANT. Recognized by the woven in rip-stop yarn.

Taffeta
A plain woven fabric where both the warp and fill interweave in an over and under pattern. Traditional woven sailcloth is a taffeta.

Tensile strength
The level of stress where a fabric or yarn breaks under tension.

Triax
DIMENSION - POLYANTs trade name for knit and spacial scrim.

Tri-Ply
DIMENSION - POLYANTs trade name for a laminated fabric with three layers. Tri-Ply has two layers of film with a loosely woven substrate in between.

Unit
One unit of stretch is 1/100 inch of elongation in a 16 inch sample. 1% elongation is 16 units.

UVM™
UV-Mildew. Referred to as a DIMENSION - POLYANT finish against UV light as well as Mildew.

Warp
The 0° direction to the edge of the cloth.

X-PLY
DIMENSION - POLYANTs trade name for a fabric with off the warp support. X-Plies are produced by inserting continuous yarns at various angels of the warp in a "X" pattern.